Station Info :: Nine Planet Solar System ::
Space Venus :: Venus Landing
Venera 3 the Soviet space probe crash-landed on Venus, becoming the first spacecraft to arrive at the planet's surface in 1966 of March 1. Its sister craft Venera 2 had failed from overheating shortly before completing its flyby mission.
The descent capsule of Venera 4 entered the atmosphere of Venus on October 18, 1967. The first probe to return direct measurements from another planet, the capsule deliberated temperature, pressure, density and performed 11 automatic chemical experiments to examine the atmosphere. It showed 95% carbon dioxide, and in combination with radio supernatural data from the Mariner 5 probe, it showed that surface pressures were far greater than expected (75 to 100 atmospheres).
These results were confirmed and refined by the Venera 5 and Venera 6 missions on May 16 and 17 of 1969. However none of these missions had reached the surface whereas still transmitting. Venera 4's battery ran out while gradually floating through the massive atmosphere, and Venera 5 and 6 were crushed by high pressure 18 km (60,000 ft) above the surface.
The first successful landing on Venus was by Venera 7 on December 15, 1970. It relayed surface temperatures of 455 °C to 475 °C (855 °F to 885 °F). Venera 8 landed on July 22, 1972. Besides pressure and temperature profiles, a photometer showed that the clouds of Venus formed a layer, ending over 22 miles above the surface. A gamma ray spectrometer analyzed the chemical composition of the crust.
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Physical Characteristics of Venus
Observations And Explorations Of Venus
Historical Observations of Venus
Phases Of Venus
Early Flybys of Venus
Early Landings of Venus
Venus Early Orbiters
Further Soviet Successes
Venus Vega Lander
Venus Recent Flybys